Corruption is a cause of environmental damage

Corruption is a cause of environmental damage : Corruption facilitates abuse of the environment and misuse of natural resources. It denies people the right to clean and non-toxic surroundings as well as the public dividends from natural resources.

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What are anti corruption conventions?

Conventions are binding written international agreements between groups of states which establish commonly agreed rules and standards and express a high level of shared political commitment.

Their adoption by assemblies of governments such as the UN General Assembly or regional assemblies establishes international ir regional consensus on the matters covered.

This consensus is further strengthened when the conventions are signed by a significant number of governments in those assemblies.

They become binding when a predetermined number of countries ratify them. (See discussion below on steps in bringing them to life).

Anti-corruption conventions cover standards and requirements in the prevention, detection, investigation, and sanctioning of acts of corruption.

Some conventions have a very broad scope; others are narrower and may cover only a limited number of countries or anti-corruption measures.

Some conventions, such as the UN Convention, contain both mandatory provisions, which are binding on the states that ratify, and non-mandatory or optional provisions which the states may implement, but need not.

In general, the optional provisions represent good practice but in some cases there are legal obstacles to their introduction into a country’s legal system.

The anti-corruption measures required by conventions are implemented by legislation, regulations , policies and practices. 

The National Commission for the Protection of Public Property in Morocco


The Commission for the Protection of Public PropertyThe National Commission for the Protection of Public Property in Morocco (INPBPM) is a  Rabat-based organization dedicated to safeguarding Morocco’s land resources and  heritage from corruption, misappropriation, or illegal monopolization by means of  “confronting those who are corrupt or corruptible regardless of  their social  StAtus

How are Anti-corruption conventions useful?

Anti-corruption conventions are especially important in providing a framework for addressing cross-border issues.

They facilitate international cooperation in law enforcement by requiring countries to make the same conduct illegal, harmonising the legal and institutional frameworks for law enforcement and establishing cooperative mechanisms.

They also establish, to varying degrees, valuable common standards for domestic institutions, policies, processes and practices which buttress anti-corruption efforts at the national level.

The existence of anti-corruption conventions is evidence of   how seriously the international community takes the anti-corruption problem and the need for common solutions.

The standards and requirements that these conventions   establish for governments carry great weight, given the conventions’ binding nature and   international backing, and they remain in place while national governments come and go.

Conventions can therefore generate peer (government to government) and public pressure on governments to comply with the standards and requirements laid down.

They serve as tools for citizens and civil society organisations to hold their governments accountable on matters of anti-corruption performance.

They provide fora in which governments can meet to discuss corruption issues, align concepts and review anti-corruption efforts, with inputs from non-governmental actors. 

Corruption is a tool of organised crime

Corruption is a tool of organised crime : Corruption is a means for organised crime to facilitate the drugs and arms trade as well as human and organ trafficking

Corruption violates human rights

(inpbpm)) Corruption violates human rights :Corruption violates political and civil rights by distorting or rendering useless political institutions and processes and undermining the functioning of the judiciary and lawenforcement authorities.

Corruption also violates economic and social rights by denying equitable access topublic services such as health and education, placing obstacles in the way of earning alivelihood in the public or private sector and, as mentioned above, by distorting decision-making processes regarding the allocation of resources.

Corruption causes poverty and creates barriers to overcoming it

Corruption affects poor people the most as they are the most vulnerable. These ofteninclude women, children, the elderly and those wrestling with chronic disease. Withoutresources at their disposal they simply have fewer options when confronting barriers toaccessing basic public services and other resources. They also tend to be most affectedby the misallocation of public resources and the resulting inhibited economic development.Programmes to combat poverty are also adversely affected by corruption andare thus made ineffective

Corruption undermines representative democracy

Corruption undermines representative democracy:In countries with a system of elected representatives entrusted with decision-making power, corruption enables wealthy individuals or institutions to wield disproportionate influence in national, provincial and local politics. This can be the result of buying citizens’ votes in elections or of buying the votes of parliamentary representatives on matters such as taxation, distribution of public resources, regulation of business, or even foreign policy.

Corruption is a barrier to economic development

Corruption is a barrier to economic development : Corruption acts as a barrier to development by distorting public spending, undermining efficiency and discouraging investment and growth. It thwarts efforts by the private sector to take advantage of business and growth opportunities and undermines economic competition.

Corruption is a cross border problem

In today’s globalised world, states are increasingly interconnected through trade, investment, financial transactions and communications. This means that corruption in one country is a matter of concern in other countries because

• the harm and injustice becomes better known elsewhere

• it interferes with trade and investment opportunities in the country affected by corruption;

• it may lead to misuse of international development assistance; and

• corrupt networks based in one country operate abroad, bringing corruption to other countries; the potential risk is all the greater where a state weakened by corruption becomes a haven for organised crime.

In Africa, as in other regions, the corruption problem has a variety of cross-border components. Bribe payments are often arranged and made across borders.The proceeds of corruption are concealed by laundering funds across borders. (This may be done via deposits in foreign banks, through cross-border acquisitions or by transferring funds to anonymous shell companies or trusts in haven jurisdictions.) Individuals involved in corruption can often escape law enforcement efforts by leaving the country where investigations or prosecutions are taking place or where a court judgement has been handed down.

These features mean that corruption must be addressed on an international basis and that cross-border cooperation is essential for the prevention, detection and prosecution of corruption. Holding those suspected of corruption accountable, however, is often hampered by the complexities of such cooperation. Governments may be prevented from investigating or prosecuting the corrupt when evidence, witnesses or corrupt persons are located abroad. If foreign governments do not cooperate, enforcement of criminal law is inhibited. Similarly, when the proceeds of corruption are located abroad, it is difficult to recover funds or property without the assistance of foreign institutions.


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